Screens and DIY projects

Last Updated or created 2022-07-11

Below some examples and connection diagrams to control displays.
More code and complete schematics will be added on this page or on a separate projects page.

LCD

I’ve used a LCD display like this (HITACHI HD44780) on my PC in the 90s, and also written code to use this as a monitoring device on my amiga.

On Linux i used LcdProc – This module also was equiped with a serial connector
;LCD Display Module             Parallel port
;        1 Vss                  20 GND
;        2 Vdd                  14 +5V
;        3 Vlc                  20 GND (contrast LCD display)
;        4 RS (register select) 11 BUSY
;        5 R/W                  12 POUT
;        6 E (enable)           13 SEL
;        7 DB0                   2 D0
;        8 DB1                   3 D1
;        9 DB2                   4 D2
;       10 DB3                   5 D3
;       11 DB4                   6 D4
;       12 DB5                   7 D5
;       13 DB6                   8 D6
;       14 DB7                   9 D7
Amiga code part
        bsr     initprt         ; CIA 8520 init
        bsr     initlcd         ; init lcd display module
        move.l  #0,d0
        rts

initprt:move.b  #$ff,$bfe301    ; parallel port is output
        move.b  $bfd200,d0
        ori.b   #$07,d0         ; select, p-out and busy
        move.b  d0,$bfd200      
        rts

initlcd:move.w  #$38,d0         ; multiple reset
        bsr     send
        bsr     delay2
        move.w  #$38,d0
        bsr     send
        bsr     delay2
        move.w  #$38,d0         ; 2*8 lines
        bsr     send
        bsr     delay2
        move.w  #$01,d0         ; clear display
        bsr     send
        bsr     delay2          ; wait
        move.w  #$0c,d0         ; display on
        bsr     send
        move.w  #$06,d0         ; Entry Mode Set
        bsr     send
        rts

send:   bsr     delay
        btst    #8,d0           ; test rs bit
        beq     reg0
        bsr     rs1             ; select register 1
        bra     skip
reg0:   bsr     rs0             ; select register 0
skip:
        bsr     delay
        bsr     rw0             ; read/write=0 
        bsr     delay
        bsr     e1              ; enable = 1
        bsr     delay
        move.b  d0,$bfe101      ; push data
        bsr     delay
        bsr     e0              
        bsr     delay
        rts

delay:  move.w  #$20,d1
dloop:  subi    #1,d1
        bne     dloop
        rts

delay2: move.w  #$800,d1
dloop2: subi    #1,d1
        bne     dloop2
        rts
Part of my MQTT display alarm thingy
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include <PubSubClient.h>
#include <Wire.h> 
#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>  
LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27, 20, 4);
const char* ssid = "MYACCESSPOINT";
const char* password = "MYPASSWORD";
const char* mqtt_server = "mymqttserver";
const byte ledRed = 12;
const byte horn = 13;
int button = 2;
int press = 0;
boolean buttonToggle = true;


// Todo : DISPLAY 2ND LINE, DISPLAY SILENT, ...

WiFiClient espClient;
PubSubClient client(espClient);
bool toggle = false;
void setup_wifi() {
  delay(100);

  Serial.print("Connecting to ");
  Serial.println(ssid);
  WiFi.begin(ssid, password);
  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED)
  {
    delay(500);
    Serial.print(".");
  }
  randomSeed(micros());
  Serial.println("");
  Serial.println("WiFi connected");
  Serial.println("IP address: ");
  Serial.println(WiFi.localIP());
}

void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length)
{
  if (length > 0) {
    toggle = true;
  }

  if (length == 0) {
    toggle = false;
  }

  Serial.print("Command from MQTT broker is : [");
  Serial.print(topic);

  Serial.println();
  Serial.print(" publish data is:");
  lcd.clear();
  lcd.backlight(); // turn off backlight

  {
  
    for (int i = 0; i < length; i++)
    {
      Serial.print((char)payload[i]);
      if (i < 16){
      lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
      lcd.setCursor(i, 0);
      } else {
      lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
      lcd.setCursor(i-16, 1);
      }
      lcd.write((char)payload[i]);
    }
  }


  Serial.println();
} 

void reconnect() {
  
  while (!client.connected())
  {
    Serial.print("Attempting MQTT connection...");
    
    String clientId = "mqttlcd";
    clientId += String(random(0xffff), HEX);

    if (client.connect(clientId.c_str()))
    {
      Serial.println("connected");

      client.subscribe("mqttlcd/message");
    } else {
      Serial.print("failed, rc=");
      Serial.print(client.state());
      Serial.println(" try again in 5 seconds");
      delay(6000);
    }
  }
} 

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);
  pinMode(button, INPUT);
  digitalWrite(2, HIGH);
  pinMode(ledRed, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(ledRed, LOW);
  pinMode(horn, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(horn, LOW);
  setup_wifi();
  client.setServer(mqtt_server, 1883);
  lcd.init(); 
  lcd.backlight();
}

void loop() {

  
  if (!client.connected()) {
    reconnect();
  }
  if (toggle == true) {
    digitalWrite(ledRed, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(horn, HIGH);
    delay(200);
    digitalWrite(ledRed, LOW);
    digitalWrite(horn, LOW);
    delay(200);
  }
  if (toggle == false) {
    digitalWrite(ledRed, LOW);
    digitalWrite(horn, LOW);

  }

  client.setCallback(callback);
  client.loop();

  press = digitalRead(button);
  if (press == LOW)
  {
    if (buttonToggle)
    {
      digitalWrite(ledRed, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(horn, HIGH);
      buttonToggle = !buttonToggle;
    }
    else
    {
      digitalWrite(ledRed, LOW); 
      digitalWrite(horn, LOW);
      buttonToggle = !buttonToggle;
      toggle = false;
      client.publish("mqttlcd/button","pressed");
      lcd.clear();
      lcd.noBacklight(); // turn off backlight
    }
  }
  delay(500);  //delay for debounce
}

Oled

There are several oled displays, mostly controllable with i2c but some of them are SPI

SSD1306 – I2c connected

Using a wemos – Octoprint project for example
Octoprint (Note: this is NOT a multicolor display 1/4 of the display is yellow. )
My notification watch. Runs on a ESP12F connects to Wifi, has a piezo sound element
Using a raspberry (Part of my Lab Sensors Project)
pip3 install adafruit-circuitpython-ssd1306
git clone https://github.com/adafruit/Adafruit_Python_SSD1306 (old)
Edit file - comment SPI section

Some arduino’s have embedded displays like those i’ve used for a Lora project.

Other means of connecting : SPI

SPI connected display

Nextion

Nextion is a Human Machine Interface (HMI) solution combining an onboard processor and memory touch display with Nextion Editor software for HMI GUI project development.

Using the Nextion Editor software, you can quickly develop the HMI GUI by drag-and-drop components (graphics, text, button, slider, etc.) and ASCII text-based instructions for coding how components interact on the display side.

Nextion HMI display connects to peripheral MCU via TTL Serial (5V, TX, RX, GND) to provide event notifications that peripheral MCU can act on, the peripheral MCU can easily update progress, and status back to Nextion display utilizing simple ASCII text-based instructions.

My nextion domoticz box, tilt to wakeup
Domoticz controller

My biltong box using a Nextion

Raspberry displays

 3.5inch RPi Display – 480×320 Pixel – XPT2046 Touch Controller
edit cmdline.txt
add "fbcon=map:10 fbcon=font:ProFont6x11 logo.nologo"
at the end
edit config.txt
add between custom comments at the bottom
dtoverlay=piscreen,speed=24000000,rotate=90
# Or check http://www.lcdwiki.com/3.5inch_RPi_Display

Above display’s i’ve used for Picore Players and the Lidar POC

To try: Getting above display running with a arduino
https://github.com/PaulStoffregen/XPT2046_Touchscreen

Raspberry HDMI display

Easiest of them all, just connect with HDMI, there is a adaptor for hdmi-hdmi (versions 1,2,3) and hdmi-mini-hdmi for RPi4 variants.

Epaper and 7-Segment displays

Other means of displaying information are for example

Epaper

ESP with epaper module, disconnected power for a while, artifacts appear.

7 Segment displays

I used a lot of 7-Segment display’s in the past. They look cool and are hardcore.

My homebrew computer uses this

Nixie tubes!

And there are https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nixie_tube .. I’ve never had those

Above bigger 2D display i used with Wled and a digital microphone, so its sound reactive. The lower part i got in recently .

inmp441 digital microphone