Tag Archives: bash

Triple screen panorama viewer

Got a question, could I make the video viewer also for images.

Well, that is a great idea, i’ve got some panoramic photos myself.

A little modification, some added code, but here is a working example.

Some vacation pictures widescreen …

imageview.py filename
Use esc to stop, and enter for next image.
(Has better full screen experience than my movie player. (no padding) have to revisit that one )

Nice to have?

  • Back button?
  • Comments, renaming thumb
from pathlib import Path
from sys import platform as PLATFORM
import os
import re
import PySimpleGUI as sg
from PIL import Image, ImageEnhance, ImageTk, ImageOps, ImageFilter
from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET
import sys
from sys import platform as PLATFORM

abspath = os.path.abspath(__file__)
dname = os.path.dirname(abspath)

    print(sys.argv[0] +  " filename")

def nextFile(currentfile,dir):
        dirpath = os.path.dirname(dir)
        fileList = []
        for f in os.listdir(dirpath):
            #fpath = os.path.join(dirpath, f)
            fpath = f
            if os.path.isfile(fpath) and f.endswith(('.jpg','.JPG')):
        for i in range(len(fileList)):
                if (fileList[i]) == currentfile:
        return newfile
# yeah i know .. no thumb but full image, change it yourself!
def loadthumb(thumbfile):
    # IF exists
    path_to_file = thumbfile
    path = Path(path_to_file)

    if path.is_file():
        im = Image.open(thumbfile)
        im=ImageOps.contain(im, (5760,5760)) 
        thumbimage = ImageTk.PhotoImage(image=im)


#------- Layout image only --------#
layout = [
        [[sg.Image('', size=(5760, 1080), key='image',background_color='black',pad=(0, 0))],

#------- Set window --------#
window = sg.Window('Triple image player', layout, no_titlebar=True, margins=(0,0),location=(0,0), size=(5760,1080), keep_on_top=True, finalize=True,resizable=False)

window.bind("<Escape>", "-ESCAPE-")
window.bind("<Return>", "-ENTER-")

window['image'].expand(True, True)               

nextfile = image
#------------ The Event Loop ------------#
while True:
    event, values = window.read(timeout=1000)       # run with a timeout so that current location can be updated
    if event == sg.WIN_CLOSED:

    if event == '-ENTER-':
        nextfile = nextFile(nextfile,'./')

    if event == '-ESCAPE-':

Converting images for right resolution from a temp directory filled with large panorama photos

ls temp  | while read; do
	convert -resize 5760x -gravity center  -crop 5760x1080 -auto-orient  "temp/$REPLY" "$REPLY" 

Background switcher Ubuntu

I was playing around with Phantomjs a headless browser.
Using this as a scraper for a ajax enabled site.

After scraping a wallpaper site, I wanted to take the big pictures and display these as background.

First sort and resize to a better size.

Below does the following:

  • Image width larger than 1800 AND
  • Image height larger than 900
  • Resize to 1920×1080 ( enlarge or reduce size )
  • Not screen filling (portrait mode) ? Than add black bars on the side.
  • Place the image in wallpaper directory

Convert script, if you resize huge images beforehand, you safe cpu resources later.
You also can place other colors or even another background instead of black.

mkdir -p wallpaper
ls * | while read ; do
info=$(identify "$REPLY" | awk '{ print $3 }' 2>/dev/null)
height=$( echo $info | cut -f2 -dx)
width=$( echo $info | cut -f1 -dx)
if [ $width -gt 1800 ] && [ $height -gt 900 ] ; then
	convert -resize 1920x1080  -gravity center  -background black -extent 1920x1080 "$REPLY" "wallpaper/$REPLY"

Set a random wallpaper as background using cron.


cd /home/henri/Pictures/
getranpic=$(ls  wallpaper/ |sort -R |tail -1)
#gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-options 'wallpaper'
#Set different modes ( enum 'none' 'wallpaper' 'centered' 'scaled' 'stretched' 'zoom' 'spanned' )
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri-dark  "$(realpath wallpaper/$getranpic)"
logger "$(realpath $getranpic)" 

Cron example

* * * * * DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=unix:path=/run/user/1000/bus /home/henri/bin/setrandom

Planxty Irwin Concertina Notation

While working on a harmony for Irmgard and me in Musescore, i tought it would be nice to have it also in another notation.

Above a Musescore screenshot.

When using below button assignment, we can easily rewrite above into another notation.

Write musescore as MusicML/mxl Music xml.

Install xml2abc from https://wim.vree.org/svgParse/xml2abc.html

python xml2abc.py INPUTFILE.mxl output.abc

My abc file

T:Planxty Irwin
V:1 treble nm="Henri" snm="H"
|: d | B2 d | c2 A | F2 A | G3/2 d/ B | A G F | G3/2 A/ B | D2 E | F2 d | B2 d | c2 A | F2 A |
 G3/2 d/ B | A G F | G3/2 A/ B | e d c | B2 d | B3/2 c/ B | B G B | c3/2 d/ c | c A F | G d e |
 c d e | d3/2 c/ A | d c A | B c d | c B A | F G A | G3/2 d/ B | A G F | G3/2 A/ B | e d c | B2 :|

Using below bash script you can convert this to PDF WITH concertina notations.
WARNING: I didn't include all keys (yet).
NOTE: Easy to adjust to other notations.
if [ $# -lt 2 ]; then
    print "script orgname convertname"
    exit 1
: > parced
cat $1 | awk '/^\|/ {exit} {print}' > header
cat $1 | grep "|" | tr -d '[0-9]:/'> parse
cat parse | while read ; do 
echo $REPLY
echo -n "w: "

for word in $(echo $REPLY) ; do

	if [ "$word" == "|" ] ; then echo -n " | " 
	elif [ "$word" == "D" ] ; then echo -n " 2 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "G" ] ; then echo -n " 3 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "B" ] ; then echo -n " 4 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "d" ] ; then echo -n " 5 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "g" ] ; then echo -n " 6 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "b" ] ; then echo -n " 7 ";
	else echo -n " * "
echo ""

echo -n "w: "

for word in $(echo $REPLY) ; do

	if [ "$word" == "|" ] ; then echo -n " | " 
	elif [ "$word" == "F" ] ; then echo -n " 2 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "A" ] ; then echo -n " 3 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "c" ] ; then echo -n " 4 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "e" ] ; then echo -n " 5 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "f" ] ; then echo -n " 6 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "a" ] ; then echo -n " 7 ";
	elif [ "$word" == "E" ] ; then echo -n " 4' ";  # <============ example 2nd row
	else echo -n " * "
echo ""

) >> parced
cat header parced > $abc
abcm2ps -x -O - "$abc" | ps2pdf  -sPAPERSIZE=a4 - "$(echo  $abc | cut -f2 -d/ | sed 's/abc/pdf/g')"

Example output (Harmony part)

Simple FreeOTP access for PHP

I’ve played with FreeOTP for my own websites in the past, but here is a cleaned up version.

apt-get install qrencode oathtool

Using a webserver with php you can use below simple sniplet to restrict access.

$output = shell_exec('oathtool --totp=sha256 --base32 ################PLACE-SECRET-OUTPUT-HERE-############');
$stripped = preg_replace('/\D/', '', $output);
$strippedotp = preg_replace('/\D/', '', $otp);
<form action="" method="post">
OTP: <input type="text" name="otp"><br>
<input type="submit">
if(strcmp("$strippedotp", "$stripped") == 0)
{ echo "Access"; }
{ echo "No Access"; }

bash script to generate secret and qrcode

secret=$(echo 1234567812345678 | base32)
echo "Secret : (place in PHP file)"
echo $secret
qrencode -t ANSI256 -o - $(echo otpauth://totp/Mine:myname?secret=${secret}&issuer=Mine&algorithm=SHA256&digits=6&period=30) -o qrcode.png -t png -s 5

Above generates a QRcode you can import in FreeOTP

Scraping authenticated websites

A friend needed to scrape data from an authenticated website.
This needs to be scripted and processed without human intervention.

Following steps are needed to get the correct curl commands (one time only)

Login page
Press F12 or right-click inspect
Click network and reload using ctrl-r
Select the start page and right click
copy as cURL (bash)

next steps

save curl command in a file

remove –compresssion and -H ‘Cookie: JSESSIONID=?????????????????????????????’

add just after curl

-k (no certificate check) and
–cookie-jar tmpcookiefile

excecute this. It will give you a file with a session id and a true field.
(This will change at every login)
but is needed for subsequential requests

Next: use this sessioncookie to get the next authenticated request

So to scrape with login, you need two lines in your script.
One to get the session cookie. (YOUR username/pass will be in here!!)
And the second to get the needed page using the cookie

#authenticate and save sessioncookie
curl -k --cookie-jar part1.cookie 'https://xxx.xxxxx.xxx/site/dologin'   -H 'Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.7'   -H 'Accept-Language: en-GB,en;q=0.9,nl-NL;q=0.8,nl;q=0.7'   -H 'Cache-Control: max-age=0'   -H 'Connection: keep-alive'   -H 'Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=----WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu'    -H 'Origin: https://xxx.xxxxx.xxx'   -H 'Referer: https://xxx.xxxxx.xxx/site/loginform'   -H 'Sec-Fetch-Dest: document'   -H 'Sec-Fetch-Mode: navigate'   -H 'Sec-Fetch-Site: same-origin'   -H 'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1'   -H 'User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/ Safari/537.36'   -H 'sec-ch-ua: "Chromium";v="110", "Not A(Brand";v="24", "Google Chrome";v="110"'   -H 'sec-ch-ua-mobile: ?0'   -H 'sec-ch-ua-platform: "Windows"'   --data-raw $'------WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="form[username]"\r\n\r\nusername\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="form[password]"\r\n\r\npassword\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="form[refname]"\r\n\r\n\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="form[refid]"\r\n\r\n\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="form[refmod]"\r\n\r\n\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="form[csrf_hash]"\r\n\r\ncsrf_ab09f7887d9dacfe1489b68b64fe6a01\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryb1chvkAVZSF3hPSu--\r\n'
#get data from second page
curl -k -l --cookie part1.cookie  https://xxx.xxxxx.xxx/subscriber/overview

Converting old media

Old files, own created stuff, downloaded stuff. Sometimes there are no viewers anymore, or you thrown devices away.

(I will add to this when i find more information)

These are the tools i’ve used to convert them to a newer format.

NOTE: Converting will always impact the quality


LBM (amiga)

ilbmtoppm < test.LBM | pnmtopng - > test.png

RAM (video files)

ffmpeg -i file.ram file.mp4
ffmpeg -i file.ram file.gif

Own DVD’s
NOTE: VOB files are mpg, to keep same quality i use stream copy (-c copy) , besides mpg i´d like to have movies in a web streamable format like MP4, so i DO convert these

ffmpeg -i "concat:VTS_01_1.VOB|VTS_01_2.VOB|VTS_01_3.VOB" -f mpeg -c copy output.mpeg


.. and record with OBS

AMR ( Adaptive Multi-Rate audio codec )

ffmpeg -i folkband.amr -ar 22050 folkband.mp3


ffmpeg -i pipes.3gp -vcodec h264 -c:a aac pipes.mp4
If your 3gp is recent and has a x264 tag (check with mediainfo)
then you can convert lossless with
ffmpeg -i 10026202.3gp -c:v copy -c:a copy 10026202.mp4

QTVR (need to get a better solution for this)
I’ve used this for rendered scenes

ffmpeg -i ../test.mov %02d.png
ffmpeg -i %02d.png -vf "tile=1x24,transpose=1" qtvrmovie.png


ffmpeg -i filename.flv -c:v libx264 -crf 19 -strict experimental filename.mp4

WEBP (Not a old media format, but i dont like webp format.)
This script converts to images or animated gif depending on the number of frames


ls *webp |  while read file; do
duration=$(webpinfo -summary "$file" | grep Duration | head -1 |  sed -e 's/.* \([0-9]*\)$/\1/')
frames=$(webpinfo -summary "$file" | grep frames | head -1 |  sed -e 's/.* \([0-9]*\)$/\1/')
if [ "$duration" == "0" ] ; then duration=50 ;fi
echo "DUR $duration : FRM $frames"
dur=$( echo "$duration / 100" | bc )

if [ $frames == "1" ] ; then convert $file png/$file.jpg 
for i in $(seq -f "%05g" 1 $frames)
    webpmux -get frame $i $file -o $file.$i.webp
    dwebp $file.$i.webp -o $file.$i.png

convert $file.*.png  -colorspace srgb  +dither  -delay $dur -loop 0 gif/$file.gif
rm $file.[0-9]*.png *webp.[0-9]*.webp

Linux crypt methods i’m using.

Some directories on my fileserver are encrypted using ecryptfs.

eCryptfs is a POSIX-compliant enterprise cryptographic stacked filesystem for Linux. eCryptfs stores cryptographic metadata in the header of each file, so that encrypted files can be copied between hosts; the file will be decrypted with the proper key in the Linux kernel keyring. There is no need to keep track of any additional information aside from what is already in the encrypted file itself. You may think of eCryptfs as a sort of “gnupg as a filesystem”.

Example crypted directory using filename encryption


Adhoc mounting

You can use the same dir for mounting!
Filenames are encrypted also.
Use umount go back to the crypted state

NOTE: You can write files to the crypted dir, if you are NOT using filename encryption, you can’t see which one is crypted and which is not.
Use the script below to get hints of the readable files!

mount -t ecryptfs securedir securedir
Select cipher:
 1) aes: blocksize = 16; min keysize = 16; max keysize = 32
 2) blowfish: blocksize = 8; min keysize = 16; max keysize = 56
 3) des3_ede: blocksize = 8; min keysize = 24; max keysize = 24
 4) twofish: blocksize = 16; min keysize = 16; max keysize = 32
 5) cast6: blocksize = 16; min keysize = 16; max keysize = 32
 6) cast5: blocksize = 8; min keysize = 5; max keysize = 16
Selection [aes]:
Select key bytes:
 1) 16
 2) 32
 3) 24
Selection [16]:
Enable plaintext passthrough (y/n) [n]:
Enable filename encryption (y/n) [n]: y
Filename Encryption Key (FNEK) Signature [xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx]:
Attempting to mount with the following options:
Mounted eCryptfs

Crypting disks for travel/backup

For this i’m using Luks

The Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is a disk encryption specification created by Clemens Fruhwirth in 2004 and was originally intended for Linux.

While most disk encryption software implements different, incompatible, and undocumented formats , LUKS implements a platform-independent standard on-disk format for use in various tools. This not only facilitates compatibility and interoperability among different programs, but also assures that they all implement password management in a secure and documented manner

Formatting a disk and mounting

cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sdb1

This will overwrite data on /dev/sdb1 irrevocably.

Are you sure? (Type uppercase yes): YES
Enter passphrase for /dev/sdb1:
Verify passphrase:
root@workstation:~# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb1 crypto
Enter passphrase for /dev/sdb1:
root@workstation:~# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/crypto
mke2fs 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018)
Creating filesystem with 244188672 4k blocks and 61054976 inodes
Filesystem UUID: 844eb9ee-d4da-4dfd-9d94-b62987e96b93
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968,
        102400000, 214990848

Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (262144 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

root@workstation:~# mount /dev/mapper/crypto /backup/

Umount and close

umount /backup
cryptsetup luksClose crypto

File crypt checker (checks for data files which COULD be crypted)

find secure -type f  -exec file {} \;| egrep -v "ASCII text|MS Windows shortcut|ISO-8859 text|image data|PDF document|PC bitmap|Composite Document File|WebM|ISO Media|Microsoft Word|HTML| Microsoft Excel|Matroska|vCard|Microsoft ASF|Web/
P|RIFF|MPEG|RealMedia|UTF\-8 Unicode|Zip archive data|Macromedia Flash|RAR archive|EPUB document|Adobe Photoshop Image|AppleDouble|OpenType|empty|gzip compressed data|MS Windows|OpenDocument|Paint Shop Pro|executable|PostScript document|
Rich Text|audio data|SVG Scalable|UDF filesystem|very short file|Web Open Font Format|IFF |TrueType|BeautifulWatches|MTS:" > data-or-not


File crypt checker ( When the directory is in crypted state )
All files should be raw data

find secure -type f  -exec file {} \;| egrep -v data$  > notcrypted-files

Fast search ‘n sorting on my fileserver

When i’m looking for certain files on my fileserver i sometimes have to fallback to locate.

Most of the times i use the methods mentioned in :

The script below helps me to copy located files to a temporary directory.
(Which is excluded in al kinds of other find tools)

It will remove the slashes in a path, but keeps the rest.

  • You can pipe to this script
  • All files in 1 directory, but NO overwrite of files (keeps path). This allows for easy browsing with a picture viewer.
  • Want to know original path, look at the filename .. think of where the slashes should go


Lets find all jpg’s which linux in its name

# this will list all found files
locate -i linux | grep -i jpg$ 

output example (see below) (With slashes and spaces)
/tank/WorkDirectory/TMP/UITZOEKEN/cds uitzoeken/div/141/31/cd3/done/gfx/linux-from-scratch.jpg


mkdir -p /mnt/private/TEMP/$$
cat - | while read line ; do cp "$line" /mnt/private/TEMP/$$/$(echo "$line" | tr -cd 'A-Za-z0-9._-' ; echo "" ) ;done

When running combined command:

locate -i linux | grep -i jpg$ | cplocatescript

It will create a directory like below

ls /mnt/private/28723/
etc ...
etc ...
etc ...

Bash tips part 1

Best Practices

#!/bin/bash     # Set shebang .. interpreter (sh/python/bash)
#set -x            # debug flag, shows all output and variables
set -e             # exit when an error occurs, Dont use this when sourcing a scriptor using bash ./scriptnaam gebruikt. 
set -u             # exit when a variable isn't defined
set -o pipefail # exit when a pipe command fails
# Add comments to your scripts!

grep string /nonexistenddir/file | sort # Does NOT give an error, sort works!
So echo $? gives 0
When set -o pipefail is set, above example will print 1 or 2

Bash options example


usage ()
    echo >&2 "usage: $0 <list-of-options>"

main ()
    [ $# -lt 1 ] && usage
    INSTALL_DIR=`dirname $0`
    for i in $@; do
        echo "$INSTALL_DIR $i"

main $@

Execute output from a script.

Sometimes i write scripts which print the command I want to have executed. Most of the times to check the generated commandline.
simple example

ls | grep 2000 | while read ; do echo rm -f "$REPLY" ;done

Above only prints the lines
rm -f <filename with 2000>
rm -f <other filename with 2000>

Instead of removing the echo command, you can add a | bash , to have it executed.

ls | grep 2000 | while read ; do echo rm -f "$REPLY" ;done | bash

Or even shorter ( Use !! for previous command )

!! | bash 


Search with CTRL-R in your command history, and use !<number> to execute this command again.

touch file1 file2 file3 file4
chmod 664 !* # will chmod only the files

When you used typed
systemctl stop httpd
and want to start again use replace
This will take previous command containing stop and places stop with start and executes this.

Toggle history on/off with “set -o history”, depending on your setup you can use “<space>command to be executed”

History log original username per date when sudo is being used
(creates .history.20230103.fash in /root/ )

HISTFILE=~/.history.$(date +%y%b%d).$(who am i | awk '{ print $1 }')

Skip first 2 lines and join 2 lines

#skip 2 lines
tail -n +3

#join 2 lines
sed 'N;s/\n/,/'

#3rd line from a file
sed "3q;d" /etc/hosts

#join on line line using comma's
paste -sd "," -

Find Tricks

#Remove empty directories
find ??? -empty -type d -delete

#Find multiple extentions
find archieven/ \( -name "*.png" -o -name "*.xml" \)
-print0 to handle filenames with spaces

Remove huge directory structures FAST

mkdir /tmp/empty ; rsync -a --delete /tmp/empty /path/blah

Check program installed and in path

which zenity >/dev/null 2>/tmp/err || ( echo "zenity not found, please install" ; exit 1 )

Change directory to location script for relative path usage

cd $(dirname $0)  
ls relativesubdir/

IFS (Internal Field Separator)

IFS=$' '     # internal field separator, strings split here
for f in $(cat /etc/hosts) ; do echo $f ;done
#        localhost
IFS=$'\n\t'     # internal field separator, split end of line
for f in $(cat /etc/hosts) ; do echo $f ;done
# Outputs localhost 

Difference for and while read example

echo "This will print every word" > text  # Places text in file
echo "second line" >> text                # Append text
for f in $(cat text) ; do echo $f ;done   # for example

cat text | while read f ; do echo $f ; done # Read example
This will print every word
second line

Correct way to make a tempfile

tempfile=$(mktemp -d -t /tmp/log.$$)    # Temp file, with unique name $$ is the process number

Usage in script :
ls > $tempfile

rm -f "/tmp/$tempfile"    # Remove

Direcory empty test

[ "$(ls -A /tmp)" ] && echo "Not empty" || echo "Empty" # test directory Empty/filled
test -d /tmp/1 && rmdir /tmp/1           # Removes a directory when it exists, will give an error when NOT empty

Using Expand

On directories archive30_tmp till archive35_tmp setting recursive chmod 2775 

find achief{30..35}_tmp -type d -exec chmod 2775 {} \;
mkdir tmp{1..3} # will create tmp1 tmp2 tmp3

echo pr{ut,utser}s # Outputs "pruts prutsers"

Test root user

if [ $USER == "root" ] ; then … ; fi # execute only when root
if $USER is empty, this will give an error.

if [ w$USER == "wroot" ] works 
qouting $USER also, but qouting a number using less/greater test could be problematic

Mount test

grep -qs /media /proc/mounts && echo "/media is mounted"

Date tricks

datum=$(date +%Y%m%d)                    # datum is yyyymmdd 20230103
today=$(date +%F)
tomorrow=$(date --date="next day" +%F)
p3=$(date --date="$p2" +%F)
#now=$(date +%s --date="1 days ago")
now=$(date -d $(date --date="1 days ago" +%F) +%s)
p3epoch=$(date --date="$p3" +%s)
dater=$(date -d "$p3 1 year" +%F)

date -d @<UNIX timestamp> # Timestamp to date

Size test in directory

if [ "$(df /tmp |grep -v Available | awk {' print $4 }')" -lt 1000000 ] ; then echo "not enough free in /tmp" ;fi  

Parallel Tasks

4 parallel jobs  
find jpg -type f -name \*.jpg -print0 | xargs -0 -n1 -P4 ./convert.sh

Cluster ssh trick

Using Clusterssh at work
## clusterssh trick
Only needed to do stuff on server having a certain directory

    clusterssh storageservers # ssh to 24 storage servers
    sudo su -
    cd /bricks/*/backup2 # change directory to this if exists
    cd /alternatedir/brick0*/backup2 # change to this alternate directory if it exists 
# directories not found? then you are still in /root
    pwd | grep testdir || logout # no testdir in found subdirs? (there are non in /root so you will be logged out)
    id | grep myuser && logout # if mortal user? then logout again .. you will be disconnected from servers not containing the backup2 directories
    Do your work as root 

Forgot to sudo?

systemctl restart httpd (wont work as user)
sudo !!
(this will do  "sudo systemctl restart httpd")

Top 5 homedir users

du -hsx /home/* | sort -rh | head -5

Removing a huge file takes a long time .. lets truncate it

: > hugefile
rm hugefile

Check memory banks using dmidecode

sudo dmidecode| grep  -i -B1 "Form Factor" (B1 means BEFORE 1 line, A is AFTER)
        Size: 8192 MB
        Form Factor: DIMM
        Size: 8192 MB
        Form Factor: DIMM
        Size: No Module Installed
        Form Factor: DIMM
sudo dmidecode -t memory | grep -i size
        Size: 4096 MB

sudo lshw -short -C memory
H/W path            Device      Class          Description
/0/0                            memory         96KiB BIOS
/0/1000                         memory         4GiB System Memory
/0/1000/0                       memory         4GiB DIMM RAM

Script log replay

    script --timing=/tmp/time.txt /tmp/script.log
start your script
    scriptreplay -t /tmp/time.txt /tmp/script.log

Deleted file takes up disk space (not being released)


httpd 12209 root 6w REG 253,3 5233639424 2097234 /var/log/httpd/access_log-20200711 (deleted)

cd /proc/12209/fd

find /proc/12209/fd -ls | grep '(deleted)'

121613145 0 l-wx------ 1 root root 64 Jul 10 12:04 /proc/12209/fd/6 -> /var/log/httpd/access_log-20200711\ (deleted)

: > "/proc/12209/fd/6"                 # Truncate

Keyword in line grep

cat file | grep -o 'skip_reason.*' # till end
cat file | grep -o 'skip_reason.*tillhere' 

Remove space filename

mv *\ * a 
rm *\ * 

Upper to lower case

 tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]'

Whole directories to lowercase

#print usage 
if [ -z $1 ];then
        echo "Usage :$(basename $0) parent-directory"
        exit 1

#process all subdirectories and files in parent directory
all="$(find $1 -depth)"

for name in ${all}; do
        #set new name in lower case for files and directories
        new_name="$(dirname "${name}")/$(basename "${name}" | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]')"

        #check if new name already exists
        if [ "${name}" != "${new_name}" ]; then
                [ ! -e "${new_name}" ] && mv -T "${name}" "${new_name}"; echo "${name} was renamed to ${new_name}" || echo "${name} wasn't renamed!"

#list directories and file new names in lowercase
echo "Directories and files with new names in lowercase letters"
find $(echo $1 | tr 'A-Z' 'a-z') -depth

exit 0

Sort by lenght

awk '{ print length(), $0 | "sort -n" }' 

Order / Delimiter AWK

echo 8.168.192.in-addr.arpa. | awk -F  "." '/1/ { print $3,$2,$1 }'

From – Till using AWK

cat file | awk '/Title1/,/-----/' 

Replace Tabs

sed -e 's/\t/ /g'

Sed Case Insensitive

sed s/a/b/gI 

And using lynx std in

cat index.html | lynx --dump -stdin

Random sleep

sleep .$[ ( $RANDOM % 4 ) + 1 ]s
#remove . for whole seconds instead of 10th of seconds

Copy pasting a lot from terminal , use xclip to copy to clipboard

xclip -sel c < bigsourcefile.c

ABC to Animation for Concertina

I want to take simple ABC Music notation tunes and convert these to animations which shows you which keys to press and to push or pull.

This is a work in progress.
Script is using ImageMagick and ffmpeg

I started this in bash, and i should rewrite this in python.

Bash script which generates the images

convert -size 800x600 canvas:white white.png
for xx in $(seq 1 6); do
for yy in $(seq 1 5); do
	startx=$(( $x * $xx + 100))
	starty=$(( $y * $yy + 200))
if [ $xx -gt 3 ] ; then startx=$(($startx + 200)) ;fi
draw="$draw  -draw \"circle $startx,$starty $(( $startx - 10)),$(( $starty - 10 ))\""
echo convert $draw white.png          draw_circle.png | bash

for xx in $(seq 1 6); do
for yy in $(seq 1 5); do
        startx=$(( $x * $xx + 100))
        starty=$(( $y * $yy + 200))
if [ $xx -gt 3 ] ; then startx=$(($startx + 200)) ;fi
convert -fill white -stroke black $draw  -draw "circle $startx,$starty $(( $startx - 10)),$(( $starty - 10 ))" draw_circle.png $xx-$yy.png
convert  -draw "rectangle 300,50 500,100"  $xx-$yy.png push-$xx-$yy.png
convert  -draw "rectangle 150,50 650,100"  $xx-$yy.png pull-$xx-$yy.png

Example movie generated using random notes/length pause

for f in $(seq 1 50) ; do
pushpull=$(shuf -n1 -e push pull)
row=$(shuf -n1 -e 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 6)
col=$(shuf -n1 -e 1 1 1 2 2 3)
pauze=$(shuf -n1 -e 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 )
length=$(shuf -n1 -e 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4)
if [ $pauze == "1" ]; then
for f in $(seq 1 $lenght) ; do
echo "file $file"
echo "duration 0.5"

list to mp4

ffmpeg -f concat -i list  -vf fps=10 -pix_fmt yuv420p test.mp4

Above movie shows left and right hand. Keys to press.
And the bar above represents PULL/PUSH

Todo/In progress:

  • abc parser ( started )
  • Push/Pull as text in above movie also note to play??
  • Rewrite to python