Notes for next projects I made using our short holiday in Madeira.

Last Updated or created 2024-05-27

I think we’ve seen Maderia .. 🙂

I bought a little notebook while being there.
I wrote about 12 pages of ideas, schematics and projects to start.

  1. Rewrite Wozmon to use my composite pcb (Atmega328)
    access though via
  2. Building a 68000 pcb with a minimal machine code monitor.
    Using a atf22v10 as address decoder.
    (Same as my 6502 , I love those devices)
    Maybe I’ll add a micro sdcard reader
  3. Add a lcd matrix display to my 8088/8086
  4. Creating a PLA alternative for C64 using ath22v10 (again)
  5. Make backplanes for my 6502, so I can plug cards with different POC cards.
    Clockcard, Latched bus leds, multiple VIA’s, IRQ controller, SID + Buzzer (Maybe also AY-3-8910, see other posts), LCD, composite, serial, Matrix and serial_usb) keyboard)
  6. IRQ controller because I have some devices without opendrain, so I can’t tie all IRQ’s together
  7. Amiga Chip Mem mod for rev 5 (using a ‘new’ 8372A)
  8. 8085 Cartridge new approach
  9. C64Pico fix and add backplane + breadboard version for POCs
  10. … more
First version PLA with atf22v10

Working on 8085 cartridge

Problem with cartridge: prg is 17k, exomized 10k.
So you need 2 banks of 8k.
This disables basic rom, needed for the program.
The program needs to be relocated to 0x800 anyway.
So my exomizer options will take care of that.
But the basic is not being enabled again.

exomizer sfx sys -o data.exo -Di_ram_enter=\$37 -Di_ram_during=\$34 -f'LDA #$37 STA $01' 8085.prg 
xa frame.asm -o frame.bin
x64 -cart16 frame.bin 

Result … JAM

Movie props and reusing stuff

Last Updated or created 2024-05-27

Follow-up on previous post.

I’ve posted about sounds before, annoying!

The Wilhelm scream is a stock sound effect that has been used in many films and TV series, beginning in 1951 with the film Distant Drums. The scream is usually used when someone is shot, falls from a great height, or is thrown from an explosion. See also Squeaky door.

About movie props

Not that annoying, but I can’t think about anything else as the previous film I saw the prop in.

Props in They Live (1988) I saw in 2024

Wait a minute! Thats from Ghostbusters (1984)

Even another film exists using the same prop (never seen this movie)

The prop was made using a shoe polisher thingy b.t.w.

Playing an old game

Last Updated or created 2024-05-27

While I’m not really a gamer, I played a very old game I loved playing on my Amiga.

Its Ports of Call.

Are there others like this game?

Ports of Call is a 1986 business simulation game developed by German duo Rolf-Dieter Klein and Martin Ulrich, and published by Aegis Interactive Entertainment.
The game simulates the management of a global freight transport company, where the player charters freight, and, using the accumulated profit, can buy more and better ships. Minigames include manually piloting your ship into a specified berth in the harbour and picking up survivors from a life-raft. 

I loved the manoeuvring part, especially the large ships with both front and back rudders.

Here are some screenshots from Amiga Forever emulator

Post about other old games:

Multiple computer systems in a carrying case.

Last Updated or created 2024-05-16

Test picture of a multiprocessor computer setup.
Using buttons on the right, I want the possibility to change between systems and keyboard settings.
Also, multiple software/OS slots for SDCards will be on the right.

Mockup using a laptop display (eeepc) a bought display controller and a pi2 with Faux86

The lid containing the keyboard has a handle!

After laser cutting a nice front, it could become a nice road warrior hacking station.

I’m going to replace the wireless keyboard, probably with a touch display and a programmable layout for keyboards.
Something like below

Some layouts:

I’ll probably buy this one from waveshare

Info about Faux86

  • 8086/8088, V20, 80186 and limited 286 instruction set.
  • Configurable CPU speeds from 5Mhz up to 100Mhz.
  • Custom Hardware BIOS’s supported.
  • Supports bootable disk images in .img and .raw file format.
  • CGA / EGA / VGA Colour Video emulation, with most modes supported.
  • PC Speaker, Adlib, Soundblaster and Disney SoundSource.
  • UART Com Ports.
  • Standard PC XT Keyboard.
  • Serial Port 2-Button mouse.

C64 code re-learning stuff

Last Updated or created 2024-05-08

Re-learning the little I knew (I never had a c64 as a kid).
Back to basics, welll machine code I mean.

Programming a little demo using acme.
Split screen bitmap and text mode plus sid music

Running a little demo in retrodebugger (missing the sid music in the recording)

Some useful commands

; Dump prg with offset 0x800 per byte and skip 00 00 lines
xxd -o 0x800 -g1 icecrew.prg | uniq -f10

; Write symbol list
acme -l icecrew.sym icecrew.asm

; png to kla (koala picture)
retropixels icecrew.png -o icecrew.kla

; relocate a sid address
sidreloc -r org.sid new.sid

Below code has some flaws:

Many empty gaps, creating a large file.
Exomizer could fix this, but better memory management should be the better solution.
The Koala file has many 0 bytes, the logo is small but the file is created for a full screen image.

Part of the program see $1000 of start of SID music

!cpu 6502
!to "icecrew1.prg",cbm

; Standard basic sys runner
basic_address   = $0801

; sid addresses
; address moved using 
; sidreloc -r Lameness_Since_1991.sid lame.sid
; addresses found using
;sidplay2 -v lame.sid 
;|   SIDPLAY - Music Player and C64 SID Chip Emulator   |
;|          Sidplay V2.0.9, Libsidplay V2.1.1           |
;| Title        : Lameness Since 1991                   |
;| Author       : Peter Siekmann (Devilock)             |
;| Released     : 2017 Oxyron                           |
;| File format  : PlaySID one-file format (PSID)        |
;| Filename(s)  : lame.sid                              |
;| Condition    : No errors                             |
;| Playlist     : 1/1 (tune 1/1[1])                     |
;| Song Speed   : 50 Hz VBI (PAL)                       |
;| Song Length  : UNKNOWN                               |
;| Addresses    : DRIVER = $1C00-$1CFF, INIT = $0FFF    |
;|              : LOAD   = $0FFF-$1B25, PLAY = $1003    |
;| SID Details  : Filter = Yes, Model = 8580            |
;| Environment  : Real C64                              |
sid_address     = $0fff
sid_play        = $1003
sid_init        = $0fff
; Character 
char_address    = $3800
screen_mem      = $4400
; Koala address
bitmap_address  = $6000
bitmap_data     = $7f40
bitmap_color    = $8328
bitmap_bgcolor  = $8710
program_address = $c000
color_mem       = $d800

reg_d011	= $D011
; VIC register
;Bit 7 (weight 128) is the most significant bit of the VIC's nine-bit raster register (see address 53266).
;Bit 6 controls extended color mode
;Bit 5 selects either the text screen ("0") or high resolution graphics ("1").
;Bit 4 controls whether the screen area is visible or not.
;Bit 3 selects 25 (when set to "1") or 24 (when set to "0") visible character lines on the text screen.
;Bit 0–2 is used for vertical pixel-by-pixel scrolling of the text or high resolution graphics.

; Rom routine to clear screen ( slow ! )
; Better to do this yourself
clear_screen     = $e544

* = sid_address
    !bin "lame.sid",,$7c+2

; standard charset
* = char_address
    !bin "charset.chr"

; drawn with gimp converted using retropixel
; retropixels icecrew.png -o icecrew.kla
* = bitmap_address
    !bin "icecrew.kla",,$02

; sys 49152
* = basic_address
    !byte $0d,$08,$dc,$07,$9e,$20,$34,$39,$31,$35,$32,$00,$00,$00

* = program_address
    ; init
    lda #$00
    jsr sid_init
    jsr clear_screen
    jsr load_bitmap
    jsr init_text
    ldy #$7f
    sty $dc0d
    sty $dd0d
    lda $dc0d
    lda $dd0d
    lda #$01
    sta $d01a
    lda reg_d011
    and #$7f
    sta reg_d011
; move interrupt vector to bitmap
    lda #<interruptbitmap
    ldx #>interruptbitmap
    sta $314    ; Low Address part IRQ vector
    stx $315    ; High Address part IQR vector
    ldy #$1b
    sty reg_d011
    lda #$7f
    sta $dc0d
    lda #$01
    sta $d01a
; trigger interrupt at rasterline 0
    lda #$00
    sta $d012
    jmp *

    inc $d019
; trigger interrupt at rasterline 128
    lda #$80
    sta $d012
    lda #<interrupttxt
    ldx #>interrupttxt
    sta $314
    stx $315
    jsr bitmap_mode
    jmp $ea81

; ack IRQ
    inc $d019
; IRQ at line 0
    lda #$00
    sta $d012
    lda #<interruptbitmap
    ldx #>interruptbitmap
    sta $314
    stx $315
    jsr text_mode
    jsr sid_play
    jmp $ea81

; bitmap graphics multicolor
    lda #$3b
    sta reg_d011
    lda #$18
    sta $d016
; switch to video bank 2 ($4000-$7FFF)
    lda $dd00
    and #$fc
    ora #$02
    sta $dd00
    lda #$18
    sta $d018

; set text mode hires
    lda #$1b
    sta reg_d011
    lda #$08
    sta $d016
; switch to video bank 1 ($0000-$3FFF)
    lda $dd00
    and #$fc
    ora #$03
    sta $dd00
; set charset location
; 7 * 2048 = $3800, set in bits 1-3 of $d018
    lda $d018
    ora #$0e
    sta $d018

    lda bitmap_bgcolor
    sta $d020
    sta $d021
    ldx #$00
; screen memory
    lda bitmap_data,x
    sta screen_mem,x
    lda bitmap_data+256,x
    sta screen_mem+256,x
    lda bitmap_data+512,x
    sta screen_mem+512,x
    lda bitmap_data+768,x
    sta screen_mem+768,x
; color memory
    lda bitmap_color,x
    sta color_mem,x
    lda bitmap_color+256,x
    sta color_mem+256,x
    lda bitmap_color+512,x
    sta color_mem+512,x
    lda bitmap_color+768,x
    sta color_mem+768,x
    bne copy_bmp

    ldx #$00
    lda text1,x
    sta $0400+520,x
    lda text2,x
    sta $0400+640,x
    lda text3,x
    sta $0400+640+120,x
    lda #$06
    sta color_mem+520,x
    lda #$0e
    sta color_mem+640,x
    lda #$0e
    sta color_mem+640+120,x
    cpx #$28
    bne copy_txt

    !scr  "     back to oldskool demos in 2024     "
    !scr  "   greetings to bigred & tyrone & edk   "
    !scr  "     a lot to relearn - keep coding!    "

C64 Multipart Loader

Last Updated or created 2024-05-05

Today I tested part loading for a demo.

I wanted this to be a multipart loader, instead of a trackloader.
A trackloader can load sector parts which I would like more.
But the C64Pico can’t do disk images. (Mcume)

C64Pico based on MCUME see building of this in other posts.

2nd reason: While I’ve written a track loader for 8086, I never did it for C64. As a kid I didn’t have a C64, so all knowledge I have is from later years.
I’ve written only a few C64 machinecode programs.

See below explanation of what happens
  • Showing makefile
  • Showing first part assembly (without text Hello 2nd part)
  • Showing second part (no sysheader) needs to be loaded at $2000
  • Compile using Acme
  • make disk image
  • and run using autostart x64 (Vice emulator)

You see the first text from the 1st assemby code, then it will load the second at $2000 and does a jmp to this address.
Second text will but displayed.

While i’ve been using KickAss in the past and some other 6502 compilers, I manly use acme.

Makefile I created to compile, create a C64 diskimage and run the program is as below. (No exomizer tools in this Makefile)

all: acme disk run

	acme testloader.asm
	acme 2ndpart.asm

	c1541 -format diskname,id d64 my_diskimage.d64 -attach my_diskimage.d64 -write loader.prg loader.prg -write 2nd 2nd

	x64 my_diskimage.d64 

Something else … today Memorial Day

Last Updated or created 2024-05-04

Memorial Day in the Netherlands.

Something related, and maybe interesting for people to read.

Maus often published as Maus: A Survivor’s Tale, is a graphic novel by American cartoonist Art Spiegelman, serialized from 1980 to 1991. It depicts Spiegelman interviewing his father about his experiences as a Polish Jew and Holocaust survivor. The work employs postmodern techniques, and represents Jews as mice and other Germans and Poles as cats and pigs respectively. Critics have classified Maus as memoir, biography, history, fiction, autobiography, or a mix of genres. In 1992 it became the first graphic novel to win a Pulitzer Prize.

New POC / WIP Rfid Read/Write

Last Updated or created 2024-05-02

yes, again. Another change.

UPDATE: Working example at bottom!

Micros*ft Surface Running Linux!

I don’t want IDs and Paths in a Home Assistant automation.
The RFIDs can store more than enough data to store the paths to albums.

I Also tested with ESPHOME in HA, but you can’t write tags.

ESPHOME Config for my RFID device (NOT USED ANYMORE)

  name: rfidtag
  friendly_name: rfidtag

  board: d1_mini


# Enable logging

# Enable Home Assistant API
    key: "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx="

  password: "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"

  ssid: !secret wifi_ssid
  password: !secret wifi_password

  # Enable fallback hotspot (captive portal) in case wifi connection fails
    ssid: "Rfidtag Fallback Hotspot"
    password: "xxxxxxxxxxxxxx"

  clk_pin: D5
  miso_pin: D6
  mosi_pin: D7
  cs_pin: D8
  update_interval: 1s
      - mqtt.publish:
          topic: rc522/tag
          payload: !lambda 'return x;'
      - mqtt.publish:
          topic: rc522/tag_removed
          payload: !lambda 'return x;'

The next iteration of my Rfid controller will have a write function for the RFID tags.

  1. Stick a tag on a cover art piece of cardboard. (see below)
  2. Read path from data sector.
    • Send path to player automation
  3. Send path to program using MQTT or website if needed.

Not sure yet, also want to implement a wifi manager on the wemos.

Changes on above idea:

  • Paths are too long, I could not work out how to create a working program using this.
  • I stopped using paths, instead I’m using the Logitech media server album IDs.
  • Using two python scripts, I can use one for programming the card, and another script to control LMS.

How does it work

RFid device is connected to the network.

Start on your LMS server.
Search for an album name, it will present an ID and Album name in a list.
Enter the ID you want to program, or 0 to exit.
(This will also reset the programming mode)

Place an empty or previously programmed tag on the device.
It will write the album ID on the tag.

Then it will start the album.
Changing the tags will also just change the album playing.

(NOTE: My genre spotify player still works using this method, using the same device)

A second python script will read the Mqtt topic and control the Squeezebox player.

Python Code DB Query

import sqlite3
import paho.mqtt.publish as publish

port = 1883
topic = "spotify/rfid/in/write"
auth = {'username': 'xxxx','password': 'xxxxx'}
client_id = "spotithing"

def readSqliteTable(albumname):
        sqliteConnection = sqlite3.connect('/var/lib/squeezeboxserver/cache/library.db')
        cursor = sqliteConnection.cursor()
        albumname = "%" + albumname + "%"
        cursor.execute("select * from albums where title Like ?",
        records = cursor.fetchall()
        for row in records:
            print("Id: ", row[0],row[1])

    except sqlite3.Error as error:
        print("Failed to read data from sqlite table", error)
        if sqliteConnection:

album = input("Album name ? ")

number = input("Enter ID or 0 to quit : ")
publish.single(topic, "00000" , qos=1, hostname=host, port=port,
        auth=auth, client_id=client_id)
if number == 0:
publish.single(topic, number, qos=1, hostname=host, port=port,
        auth=auth, client_id=client_id)
print("Program your tag")
print("Reset/disable writing using exit with 0!")

Python Code Controller (this one needs to be running at all times)

import paho.mqtt.client as mqtt
import urllib.request

def on_connect(client, userdata, flags, rc):  
        print("Connected with result code {0}".format(str(rc)))

def on_message(client, userdata, msg):
        print("Message received-> " + msg.topic + " " + str(msg.payload))  # Print a received msg
        urllib.request.urlopen("http://IPADDRESLMS:9000/anyurl?p0=playlistcontrol&p1=album_id:" + msg.payload.decode() + "&p2=cmd:load&player=b8:27:eb:11:16:ab")
#NOTE also change b8:27:eb:11:16:ab into you players MACAddress!

client = mqtt.Client("digi_mqtt_test")  
client.on_connect = on_connect  
client.on_message = on_message  
client.connect('IPMQTTBROKER', 1883)

Arduino Code (see schematic in other post)

#include <Arduino.h>
#include <SPI.h>
#include <MFRC522.h>
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include <WiFiClient.h>
#include <PubSubClient.h>
#define SS_PIN 15
#define RST_PIN 0
MFRC522 mfrc522(SS_PIN, RST_PIN);
  MFRC522::StatusCode status; //variable to get card status
  byte buffer[18];  //data transfer buffer (16+2 bytes data+CRC)
  byte size = sizeof(buffer);
  uint8_t pageAddr = 0x06;  //In this example we will write/read 16 bytes (page 6,7,8 and 9).
                            //Ultraligth mem = 16 pages. 4 bytes per page.  
                            //Pages 0 to 4 are for special functions.           
unsigned long cardId = 0;
WiFiClient net;
PubSubClient client(net);
const char* mqtt_server = "IPMQTTBROKER";
const char* ssid = "MYSSID";
const char* password = "MYSSIDPASS";
String topicStr = "";
byte buffer2[8];

boolean Rflag=false;
int r_len;
char payload[5];
byte value[5];
void setup() {
  WiFi.begin(ssid, password);
  client.setServer(mqtt_server, 1883);
void reconnect() {
  while (WiFi.waitForConnectResult() != WL_CONNECTED) {
  while (!client.connected()) {
    String clientId = "rfid-";
    clientId += String(random(0xffff), HEX);
    if (!client.connect(clientId.c_str(), "rfidclient", "...")) {
      Serial.print("failed, rc=");
void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length) {
   Rflag=true; //will use in main loop
   r_len=length; //will use in main loop
   Serial.print("length message received in callback= ");
   int j=0;
     for (j;j<length;j++) {
if (r_len < 3) {
  Serial.print(F("Set false"));
buffer2[j]='\0'; //terminate string

void loop() {
    if (!client.connected()) {
  if (!mfrc522.PICC_IsNewCardPresent()) {
  if (!mfrc522.PICC_ReadCardSerial()) {
if (Rflag) {
        for (int i=0; i < 4; i++) {
    //data is writen in blocks of 4 bytes (4 bytes per page)
    status = (MFRC522::StatusCode) mfrc522.MIFARE_Ultralight_Write(pageAddr+i, &buffer2[i*4], 4);
    if (status != MFRC522::STATUS_OK) {
      Serial.print(F("MIFARE_Read() failed: (W) "));
  Serial.println(F("MIFARE_Ultralight_Write() OK "));
  cardId = getCardId();
  char buffer3[10];
  sprintf(buffer3, "%lu", cardId);
  client.publish("spotify/rfid/id", buffer3);
  // Read data ***************************************************
  Serial.println(F("Reading data ... "));
  //data in 4 block is readed at once.
  status = (MFRC522::StatusCode) mfrc522.MIFARE_Read(pageAddr, buffer, &size);
  if (status != MFRC522::STATUS_OK) {
    Serial.println(F("MIFARE_Read() failed: (R)"));

  Serial.println(F("Read data: "));
  //Dump a byte array to Serial
  for (byte i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
  client.publish("spotify/rfid/idlms", buffer,5);

unsigned long getCardId() {
  byte readCard[4];
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    readCard[i] = mfrc522.uid.uidByte[i];
  return (unsigned long)readCard[0] << 24
    | (unsigned long)readCard[1] << 16
    | (unsigned long)readCard[2] << 8
    | (unsigned long)readCard[3];